Obesity is abnormal accumulation of body fat, usually 20% or more over an individual's ideal body weight. It is defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) equal or more than 30. BMI is calculated as the ratio of body weight in kg to square of height in meters. There are other ways of measuring obesity like fat thickness, waist circumference.

The incidence of obesity is increasing day to day. “In every region of the world, obesity doubled between 1980 and 2008,” As per WHO’s The World health statistics 2012 report, Today one in six adults that is, half a billion people (12% of the world’s population) are considered obese.” Though India is a developing country with malnourishment, now a days India is gaining weight. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in India in the 21st century, with morbid obesity affecting 5% of the country's population. It is more prevalent in urban population & females.

Studies show that in India, nearly 15 to 20% of children are overweight and 30% are in the risk of falling in this category. It is these statistics that ring major alarm bells. In India, many studies have shown that the prevalence of overweight among adolescents varies between 10% and 30%. Another important concern is that as high as 60 to 70% may continue to be overweight or obese in adulthood.

Our team of experts are amongst the finest in the world, be it in academic qualifications, clinical expertise, hands-on experience or in research publications. Committed to patient centric care , they contribute to our record of unmatched clinical outcomes.

Apollo Jubilee Hills 
Dr.Rajnesh C. Reddy View Doctor's Profile
Dr.Rajashekhar Reddy View Doctor's Profile
Apollo Hyderguda 
Dr. C.R.K.PrasadView Doctor's Profile

Procedure description:

What you may not know is that morbid obesity has been found to affect the quality of your health and the length of your life. The medical & emotional benefits of weight loss procedures begin almost immediately after surgery. Over time, the benefits may include:


  • Significant weight loss
  • Improvement of type 2 diabetes
  • Lower blood pressure
  • Lower cholesterol
  • Relief from sleep apnea
  • Relief from acid reflux/GERD
  • Decrease joint pains, improve mobility
  • Reduce incidence of Cancer
  • Improve mood & Self esteem


  • An internal infection from leakage of digestive juices into the body cavity
  • Wound infection at incision site
  • Hernias or weakening of abdominal wall
  • Development of gall bladder disease or gall bladder stamens due to rapid weight loss
  • Blood Clots
  • Vitamin deficiencies
  • As with any other surgical procedure-there is a risk of death.

Gastric Banding
Procedure description:

Gastric banding is a restrictive procedure because it limits the amount of food you can eat at one time. During this procedure, the gastric band is placed around the stomach, dividing it into two parts: a small upper pouch & a lower stomach. The upper pouch holds about ½ cup of food. This helps a person feel full sooner & longer than usual.

How it works to help you lose weight?

By creating a smaller stomach pouch, the gastric band limits the amount of food that can be eaten at one time, so you will feel full sooner & stay full longer. As you eat less food, your body will stop storing excess calories and start using its fat supply for energy.

Gastric Bypass
Procedure Description:

Gastric Bypass is a combination of restrictive & malabsorptive surgical technique. In this procedure, a small stomach pouch is created and a section of the small intestine is directly attached to this pouch. This allows food to bypass a portion of the small intestine. By creating a smaller pouch, a Gastric bypass, limits the amount of food that can be eaten at one time, so you feel full sooner & stay full longer. On bypassing a portion of the small intestine, it also causes your body to absorb fewer calories

How it works to help you lose weight?

As you eat less food and absorb fewer calories, your body will stop storing excess calories and start using its fat supply for energy.

Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy:

In Indian scenario with difficult long term follow up, regular additional nutrition, mineral, vitamin supplementation, Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy is effective weight reduction surgery for obese. There won’t be any major anatomical, functional alteration of digestive tract & with almost nil post operative morbidity & mortality. Studies also suggested that weight reduction following sleeve gastrectomy is as equal as of with gastric bypass.

Sleeve gastrectomy is a restrictive procedure. It greatly reduces the size of the stomach and limits the amount of food that can be eaten at one time. It does not cause decreased absorption of nutrients or bypass the intestines. After this surgery, patients feel full after eating very small amounts of food. Sleeve gastrectomy may also cause a decrease in appetite. In addition to reducing the size of the stomach, the procedure reduces the amount of the “hunger hormone,” ghrelin, produced by the stomach. The duration of this effect is not clear yet, but most patients have significantly decreased hunger after the operation.

Follow up:

Postoperatively patients monitored as like any other laparoscopic surgery. 2nd post operative day contrast scan can be performed to see any contrast leak followed by patients will be started liquid diet as tolerated and can be discharged on the same day. Further follow up will be after a week and diet will be gradually increased from clear liquid to full liquids and to soft diet as tolerated under guidance of experienced dietician.


  • Cost effective
  • No major morbidity & almost nil mortality
  • Very short hospital stay, early return to activity
  • Restrictive bariatric surgery with effective weight loss by limiting intake & decreasing hunger
  • No functional, major anatomical disturbance
  • It does not involve any digestive anastomosis, no mesenteric defects are created eliminating the risk of internal hernia
  • It is not associated with Dumping syndrome, the risk of peptic ulcer is low and the absorption of nutrients, vitamins, minerals and drugs is not altered

At  APOLLO,  we perform Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as a multidisciplinary team  with well trained and qualified laparoscopic and bariatric surgeons, high end anesthesiologists, well trained ot staff including nurses and technicians and good quality equipment, ICU set up as back up if necessary, dieticians, psychologists and behavioral therapists and fitness experts on a regular basis and achieving effective & satisfactory results. Our patients usually discharge on 2nd post operative day with liquid diet. And patients are back to work in less than a week. We have seen effective weight loss of around 60% percentile in 6 months without major nutritional disturbances. However, bariatric surgery is not a resort in cases of childhood obesity because the child needs to attain his full growth potential until the age of 18 and so as to not interfere with normal growth physiology


1)How long does the surgery take?
A gastric sleeve surgery takes anywhere between 1.5 to 3 hours.

2)How long will I have to stay in the hospital?
3-5 days.

3)When can I go back to work?
One should be able to work and resume all normal activities in 2 weeks, and full recovery can be expected in 30 days.

4)How much of my stomach will be removed?

5)How much and how fast a weight loss can I expect?
Maximum weight loss is seen in the first 10 months and one can expect to lose
upto 21% weight by the third year.

6)Advantages of gastric sleeve over gastric banding
Gastric sleeve requires no readjustments and therefore no reoperations. Also, the fullness produced is more satisfying than the feeling of obstruction caused by banding.

7)Advantages over gastric bypass surgery:
A gastric sleeve does not involve any rerouting and is hence faster, easier and safer. Also, there are no vitamin and mineral deficiencies.

Gastric Sleeve
Procedure Description:

  • Reduced stomach volume increases feeling of fullness.
  • Does not require disconnecting or reconnecting of the intestines.
  • Stomach functions normally allowing most foods to be eaten, just in smaller amounts.
  • In performed laparoscopically.
  • Simpler procedure than the gastric bypass.
  • No foreign bodies used as a band surgery
  • The procedure is less likely to cause complications such as the malabsorption of vitamins.
  • It allows females to conceive and deliver healthy babies.
  • It will cure obesity related diseases like Diabetes, high blood pressure, and sleep apena.
  • • Because of significant weight loss, patients will find tremendous relief from back pain, hip pain, knee pain, and foot pain allowing them to walk and exercise more. It increases the self confidence of individuals.

Gastric Ballon
Procedure Description:

Intragastric balloon surgery is performed when an inflatable gastric balloon is endoscopic ally inserted and then inflated in the stomach to reduce capacity i.e. the ballon is inserted via the mouth and esophagus directly into the stomach.

Immediately following the introduction of the Gastric Balloon the balloon is inflated by introducing saline into the balloon which causes it to swell and reduces a patient’s capacity and ability to consume large volumes of food and fluid. This procedure can be used in isolation to provide a short medium term solution for patients who are struggling to cope with their moderate weight loss challenges.

How it works to help you lose weight?

As you eat less food and absorb fewer calories, your body will stop storing excess calories and start using its fat supply for energy.

Bariatric Surgery

BMI classification:

Under weight




Over weight




Severely obese


Morbid obese


Super obese


Causes of obesity:

  • Genetic
  • Acquired
  1. Hormonal disturbances
  2. Diet habits: Excess eating of high calorie food, Irregular eating habits
  3. Life style: sedentary habits
  4. Drugs

Effects of obesity & relation with Diabetes:

            Obesity has its deleterious effects on all systems such as Respiratory disease, Stroke, Cardiovascular problems, Gall stone disease, Gout, Osteoarthritis, Hormonal abnormalities, Diabetes & Cancer. Diabetes and obesity are mutually related. India is diabetes capital of the world. 40.9 million people are diabetic in India, this is expected to rise to 69.9 million by 2025.

Glucose maintenance in the body is a complex process. Whenever food enters the system glucose needs to be absorbed into cells by insulin. Secretion of insulin is helped by incretins which are the substances produced by hind gut that stimulate the Beta cells to produce insulin. Secretion of insulin inhibited by anti incretins secreted by fore gut. Poor sugar control is the major contribute for the development of Diabetes which is due to excessive calorie intake, poor secretion of insulin, insulin resistance. All these are strongly associated with obesity.

Associated co-morbidities:

  • Metabolic syndrome
  1. Type II Diabetes
  2. Hypertension
  3. Dyslipedemia
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Venous & Lymphatic stasis
  • Chronic respiratory hypoventilation
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Complications of Obesity:

  • Psychological -
  1. Eating disorders
  2. Poor self esteem
  3. Social isolation & stigmatism
  4. Depression
  • Greater the BMI – Early the premature death
  • Increased incidence of co-morbidities & cancers

Management of Obesity:

Obesity management is a multidisciplinary approach with several modalities like conservative, medical, non surgical, minimally invasive & major surgical approaches.

Conservative approach is the base line primary modality achieved through changing dietary habits, life style. This will certainly help in early phases of obesity but requires a lot of dedication, commitment.

Medical management mainly targets on inducing early satiety.

Non surgical methods are Gastric balloon which will be placed endoscopically. It is useful when BMI is 25-30.

Surgical approach is well known as Bariatric or Weight reduction surgery. Most people are not successful losing weight with diets. As someone becomes overweight, the risk of developing other serious diseases dramatically increases. Surgery has proven to be the most effective method to treat severe obesity. Surgery is of choice when both conservative & medical management fails.

Life After Surgery

Diet: The modifications made to your gastrointestinal tract will require permanent changes in your eating habits that must be adhered to for successful weight loss. Most important is that you adhere strictly to your surgeon’s recommended guidelines.

Birth control & pregnancy:
It is strongly advised that women of childbearing age use the most effective form of birth control during the first 16 to 24 months after Bariatric surgery.

Long-term follow-up: Over time, you will need periodic checks for anemia & vitamin B 12, folate & iron levels.

Follow-up tests will be conducted every 3 to 6 months, or as needed. Follow-up is recommended for life.